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Click below for data links:
TIU-2004-10-ROYAL MAIL LIVERY
TIU-2004-11-ROYAL MAIL 737
TIU-2008-09-C CLASS 737-300QC-A
TIU-2008-09-C CLASS 737-300QC-B
TIU-2009-12-1ST WIDE BODY- 767
TIU-2011-01-BEST PAX CHARTER AWARD
TIU-2013-04 - UPDATE
TIU-2013-09 - UPDATE-A
TIU-2013-09 - UPDATE-B
TIU-2013-09 - UPDATE-C
TIU-2013-09 - UPDATE-D
TIU-2013-11 - BAE 146 SOLD
FORMED IN 1988. DOMESTIC, REGIONAL & INTERNATIONAL, CHARTER, PASSENGER & CARGO, JET AIRPLANE SERVICES.
LONDON STANSTED AIRPORT
STANSTED, ESSEX CM24 1QW, ENGLAND, UNITED KINGDOM
Great Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland) was established in 1066, it covers an area of 242,432 sq km, its population is 59 million, its capital city is London and its official language is English.
JUNE 1999: 1 737-300, ANSETT WORLDWIDE (AWW), 4 YEARS OLD, TO BE BASED AT STANSTED, AND OFFERED FOR WET-LEASE.
AUGUST 1999: 737-33A (27285, G-ZAPM), OPERATED FOR CITYFLYER EXPRESS.
SEPTEMBER 1999: SELLS 1 AN-124, +1 BY THE END OF 1999 TO VOLGA-DNEPR (VDA). 1 B AE 146-200QT (E2119, G-ZAPN), EX-ANSETT NEW ZEALAND, OPERATES FOR AUGSBURG AIRWAYS, FROM FEBRUARY 2000.
MARCH 2000: 737-33A (27285, G-ZAPM), WET-LEASED TO TYROLEAN.
APRIL 2000: 120 EMPLOYEES (INCLUDING 45 FLIGHT CREW (FC), 50 CABIN ATTENDANTS (CA), & 20 MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS (MT)).
LOOKING FOR 2ND 737-300.
JULY 2000: 1999 = 95 MILLION (RPK) PASSENGER TRAFFIC (+.5%); 10,000 PASSENGERS (PAX) (+28%); 75 EMPLOYEES (-37.5%).
1 B AE 146-200QC (E2176), BAMJ LEASED, EX-AIR JET.
SEPTEMBER 2000: 1ST 6 MONTHS = 75.74 MILLION (RPK) TRAFFIC, 6,000 PASSENGERS (PAX).
ADDS 3RD B AE 146-200QC, TO BE BASED IN GERMANY, FOR WET-LEASE CONTRACTS. 1 B AE 146-200A (E2176, G-ZAPO), WET-LEASED TO TYROLEAN.
DECEMBER 2000: RECEIVES LONG-TERM CONTRACT FROM ROYAL MAIL FOR 1 B AE 146-200QC (E2148, G-ZAPK) OPERATIONS, LONDON STANSTED - BELFAST INTERNATIONAL, & ALSO, EDINBURGH - EAST MIDLANDS, AS 1ST ROYAL MAIL, PURE-JET OPERATIONS.
JANUARY 2001: 1 SHORTS SD3-60 (SH3741) SOLD. 1 B AE 146-200A
(E2148, G-ZAPK) LEASED TO CITYJET.
1 B AE 146-200A (E2176, G-ZAPO), LEASED TO "GO" (GFL).
JULY 2001: CONSIDERING ACQUIRING 757'S.
December 2002: B Ae 146-200A (E2119, G-ZAPN) returned from Citixpress.
January 2003: 1 order (April 2003) 757-2YO (26151).
April 2003: 156 employees (including 45 Flight Crew (FC), 48 Cabin Attendants (CA), & 22 Maintenance Technicians (MT)).
757-2YO (26151, G-ZAPU), ex-Monarch Airlines (MON), (GEF) leased.
September 2003: Forms an alliance with Channel Express (CEX) to operate a reorganized Royal Mail air distribution network using larger jet airplanes to transport more mail by less than half the present 39 flights/every week night by 8 airlines from 24 airports.
Plans to wet-lease L-100 Hercules and Tu-204's.
December 2003: B Ae 146-200AQC (E2114) bought from Ansett (ANS).
April 2004: Contract to Pemco Aviation Group, Dothan, Alabama for 1/2 737-300's to be converted to freighters, to be completed by end of May 2004.
156 employees (including 45 Flight Crew (FC), 48 Cabin Attendants (CA), & 22 Maintenance Technicians (MT)).
May 2005: 152 employees (including 46 Flight Crew (FC), 56 Cabin Attendants (CA); & 19 Maintenance Technicians (MT)).
Has based a 737-3L9QC (24219, G-ZAPW) at Bournemouth Airport to carry out contract mail flights for the Royal Mail. The airplane is also being marketed for daytime charter services: its "Quick Change" (QC) capability allows it to be fitted at short notice with 130 seats for passenger service.
September 2006: Titan Airways (TIU) operates contract and ad hoc passenger and freight charters throughout Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. Short notice wet-lease charters for scheduled airlines are a speciality.
Employees = 171 (including 54 Flight Crew (FC); 61 Cabin Attendants (CA); & 22 Maintenance Technicians (MT).
(IATA) Code: ZT. (ICAO) Code: AWC - (Callsign - ZAP).
Parent organization/shareholders: Gene Wilson (63%); & 3i (37%).
Main Base: London Stansted airport (STN).
February 2007: 737-33A (27285, G-ZAPM) in "Crystal" livery - see photo.
July 2008: (CIT) Aerospace (TCI) reached a lease agreement for 1 737-800 with Titan Airways (TIU), a London Stansted-based charter carrier. Delivery is scheduled for April.
September 2008: SEE ATTACHED "AIRLINER WORLD" ARTICLE ON TITAN AIRWAYS (TIU) - - "TIU-2008-09-A/B."
October 2008: London Stansted (STN) received permission from Transport Secretary Geoff Hoon and Secretary of State for Communities & Local Government Hazel Blears to increase the annual passenger cap to 35 million from 25 million on its existing runway. (STN) Managing Director Stewart Wingate said he was "delighted" and that the airport "will now take time to study the full detail of the decision, including the independent Planning Inspector's report, before commenting further." The British Airports Authority (BAA) and (STN) submitted their original request to lift the passenger cap and increase annual aircraft movements to 264,000 from 241,000 in April 2006. It did not request a modification to night flight restrictions. The UK's only capped airport serves nearly 23 million passengers per year. (STN)'s unrelated application to construct a 2nd runway was submitted last March.
November 2008: The UK Competition Commission concluded that airports operator, the British Airports Authority (BAA) should be allowed to increase charges at London Stansted (STN) in the 5-year period, starting next April 1, albeit at a lower rate than it proposed. In its report to the (CAA), the Commission recommended an increase in the maximum level of charges at (STN) to £6.56/$10.57 per passenger in 2009 to 2010, +3.5% higher than projected 2008 to 2009 charges of £6.34. The charges then would increase by no more than the retail price index inflation plus +1.75% each year, reaching a maximum of £7.05 per passenger in 2013 to 2014.
However, the Commission did not agree with Ryanair (RYR)'s accusation of excessive pricing and said that the (BAA)'s conduct regarding airport charges in 2008 through 2009, was not contrary to the public's interest. It did say that (STN) "pursued a course of conduct which has operated against the public interest in 3 respects in the period February 2002 to April 2008" by failing to consult adequately with airlines on the development of the airport and its capital expenditure plans, by failing to manage as effectively as possible the security queuing process, and by failing to offer appropriate landing charges for larger cargo airplanes.
It therefore recommended that the (CAA) require the (BAA) to improve the consultation process, introduce a service quality rebate scheme similar to those at London Heathrow (LHR) and London Gatwick (LGW) and offer off-peak discounts on landing charges for the largest cargo airplanes. The (CAA) said it will consider the recommendations before carrying out a further round of consultation and announcing its final decision in March.
1 order (April 2009) 737-8BK (33018), (CIT) Aerospace (TCI) leased with winglets, ex-Sterling Airways (STR), ex-(OY-SEL).
December 2008: 737-33A (G-ZAPZ) is operating for "snojet," which specializes in providing ski flights to Chambery in France
SEE ATTACHED PHOTO - - "TIU-737-33A-2008-12."
June 2009: Last year Titan Airways (TIU) extended its fleet with the introduction of an all Business (C) class 737-300 with just 44 leather business (C) class seats. (TIU) dropped plans to introduce a 737-800.
September 2009: BAE Systems is re-marketing one B Ae 146F belonging to Titan Airways (TIU) of the UK, which operates 3 of the type.
February 2010: Titan Airways (TIU) introduced a 767-36NER (30847, G-POWD). SEE PHOTO - - "TIU-767-2009-12" on an 8-year lease from (GECAS) (GEF), ex-Skymark (SKM), expanding (TIU)'s fleet to 11 airplanes (4 737-300s, 3 B Ae 146-200s, 1 757-200, 1 757 in all-business-class configuration, 1 767-36NER and 1 King Air 350). Several of the airplanes are quick-change.
August 2010: Monarch (MON) Aircraft Engineering signed a long-term heavy maintenance agreement with Titan Airways (TIU) to support the carrier's 757-200s and 767-300ERs at London Luton and Manchester. One (TIU) 757-200 has successfully undergone a "3C" maintenance check at London Luton, Monarch (MON) said.
In a surprise move, easyJet (EZY) has wet-leased a 767-36NER (30847, G-POWD) from Titan Airways (TIU) and 4 757-200s from Air Finland (AFZ), Astraeus (AUA) and (TIU) for the summer season for routes with high demand from Liverpool and London Gatwick to the Mediterranean. 1 of the main reasons for the short term leases is that (EZY) is planning to retire its remaining 4 A321-200s in September.
January 2011: SEE ATTACHED - - "TIU-2011-01-BEST PAX CHARTER AWARD."
Avro RJ100 (E3373, G-POWF), bought from B Ae, ex-(G-CFAA).
February 2011: Titan Airways (TIU) said it is adding an Avro RJ-100 to its 12-strong London Stansted based charter fleet of 4 737-300s, 4 BAe 146-200s, 1 757-200 and 1 767-300ER. The new airplane can provide flexible seating with variable geometry seats, configured for all economy (Y) service with 110Y seats, 6 abreast or 55 business class (C) and 43 economy (Y) seats.
December 2011: Monarch (MON) Aircraft Engineering has extended its agreement with Titan Airways (TIU) to provide global support for the use of its Specialized Monarch (MON) Airplane On Ground (AOG) Response (SMART) team. (MON) will provide (TIU) with a team of engineers (MT), available 24/7, who can be deployed worldwide to manage any (AOG) requirements.
January 2012: Titan Airways (TIA) is planning to lease 2 additional ex-Atlasjet Airlines (ABE) 757-200s in spring 2012.
May 2012: British Airways (BAB) has temporarily wet-leased 757-256 (29309, G-ZAPX) from Titan Airways (TIU) to replace 1 of its 737-400s (25854, G-DOCU) that is currently being repaired after being damaged by ground equipment at Genoa Cristoforo Colombo airport (GOA).
August 2012: UK airports operator (BAA) has agreed to sell London Stansted (STN), dropping further appeals in the legal battle with the UK Competition Commission’s (CC) ruling the airport should be sold.
(BAA), which earlier this month vowed it would appeal to the UK Supreme Court, now said it would proceed with the sale of (STN) but declined to give a timetable. (BAA) said: While “we still believe that the Competition Commission (CC) ruling fails to recognize that Stansted and Heathrow serve different markets,” it had decided not to proceed with the further appeal. “It’s just the case that there are no further areas to argue,” a (BAA) spokeswoman said.
The (CC) in 2009 said (BAA) should sell (STN), London Gatwick (LGW) and Edinburgh (EDI) airports, leaving (BAA) with London Heathrow, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Southampton airports. (LGW) and (EDI) were subsequently acquired by Global Infrastructure Partners.
(BAA) had objected to selling (STN) and launched a series of legal appeals, the most recent of which was rejected by the UK Court of Appeal less than a month ago.
(STN), 30 miles NE of London, primarily handles low-cost carrier (LCC) and charter flights. Annual passenger throughput is around 17 million.
January 2013: Titan Airways ((IATA) Code: ZT, based at London Stansted (STN)) (TIU) has announced plans to add a 1st ex-(TACA) International Airlines ((IATA) Code: TA, based at San Salvador Cuscatlán International (SAL)) (TAC) A320-200 to its fleet in spring that will be available for charter and wet-lease services offered by the British (ACMI) wet-lease specialist from May 1 onwards.
February 2013: UK London Stansted-based (VIP) charter specialist, Titan Airways (TIU) has completed a management buyout from minority shareholder 3i. The transaction makes Titan Airways (TIU) a wholly independent company.
UK international investor "3i" has been a minority shareholder and private equity backer for 20 years. Originally holding a 37% stake in (TIU)’s parent company, Hagondale, 3i’s ownership was reduced to 22% in March 2012. (TIU)’s Managing Director and Founder Gene Willson, who held a 63% share in Hagondale, purchased the remaining balance of 3i shares at the end of last year, and has acquired the company outright.
Willson said: “3i has been a very supportive partner but completing the purchase of their shares provides us with full control of our long-term development plans for (TIU). The additional shareholding also gives us the flexibility for further business opportunities.”
Established in 1988, Titan Airways (TIU) began as a 2-man operation with a single Cessna 404 Titan airplane. Profitability has grown by an average +£300,000/+$456,846 year-on-year, from +£1.8 million in 2004 to +£7.6 million in 2012.
Today, it has 250 staff and a fleet of 12 airplanes, comprising 3 737-300QCs, 1 737-300F, 2 B Ae 146-200QCs, 1 B Ae Avro RJ100, 3 757-200s, a 767-300ER and a 6-seat Cessna Citation CJ2+). A 13th airplane, an A320-233, will be joining the fleet this spring. Several are quick change (QC) airplanes, which enable them to be used for either passenger or freight transportation.
March 2013: Titan Airways (TIU) is adding the 1st Airbus (EDS) A320 to its fleet on May 1. The new airplane may herald the start of a move away from Boeing (TBC) products, Commercial Director Alastair Kiernan said. (TIU) is acquiring the 7-year-old A320-200 on a 5-year lease from (CIT) Aerospace (TCI). It was previously with (TACA) (TAC).
(TIU) currently operates a 12-strong fleet, comprising 3 737-300QCs, 1 737-300F, 2 BAe 146-200QCs, 1 BAe Avro RJ100, 3 757-200s, a 767-300ER and a 6-seat Cessna Citation.
While (TIU) had no problem with Boeing (TBC)’s products, Kiernan said, “We felt it was time for a change.” Although taking on a new type would lead to higher maintenance costs in the short term, commonalities in the A320 family held some attractions. “The idea is that, looking ahead, the Airbus A318, A319, A320 and A321 all have the same components, so holding a stock of spare parts, in theory, becomes cheaper because we do not have to hold so many,” he said. Training costs would also drop because only 1 simulator would be required. “It is also providing like-for-like to many of the sub-charter airlines that we fly for regularly, so their passengers have a concept of flying in a similar-type [airplane].”
The new A320 will be delivered with a refitted 168-seat interior offering a minimum 31-inch pitch. The front half of the cabin will have variable-geometry seats that convert from 6-abreast to 4-abreast layout with drop-down central tables.
April 2013: SEE ATTACHED "AIRLINER WORLD" MAGAZINE UPDATE - - "TIU-2013-04 - UPDATE."
October 2013: (VIP) charter operator, Titan Airways (TIU) has ceased BAe 146 operations after 17 years. (TIU) said it has sold its last BAe 146 to Australia. (TIU)’s Avro RJ100 is destined for Canada. The BAe, which was its 1st jet airplane, was acquired in 1996.
(TIU) Managing Director Gene Willson said, “Over the years, the BAe 146QC contracts have been great for us (passengers by day and freight or mail by night) but their work has now been taken over by our larger more fuel-efficient Boeing 737QCs.”
The Avro RJ100 (G-POWF), which Titan acquired in February 2011, has most recently been employed on a government contract in the Gulf region. That operation will be taken over by the (RAF)’s own airplanes imminently.
(TIU) has begun seeking younger, more efficient airplanes for its fleet. (TIU) introduced an A320 into its fleet in April and said it is looking for “further opportunities to expand its charter fleet with the Airbus (EDS) product.”
757-256 (29309, G-ZAPX) and A320-233 (2791, G-POWI), returned from Jet2 (JT2).
December 2013: Titan Airways ((IATA) Code: ZT, based at London Stansted) (TIU) has retired its last dedicated freighter, a 737-300F (24546, G-ZAPV), from scheduled service. According to informed sources, the freighter has now been sold onto West Atlantic (UK) ((IATA) Code: NPT, based at Coventry) (AAG). (TIU) continues to operate 3 737-300QC airplanes; 2 on its own (AOC), 1 wet-leased from Denmark's Jet Time ((IATA) Code: JO, based at Copenhagen Kastrup).
April 2014: SEE ATTACHED - - "TIU-2014-04-UPDATE."
May 2014: Titan Airways (TIU) begins weekly, London Gatwick to Turin Airbus A320-233 service from mid-December to mid April 2015. (TIU) will also fly 3x-weekly, London Gatwick to Chambery for the same period. Titan (TIU) will also offer Boeing 757-200 Stansted to Chambery and Birmingham to Chambery service.
February 2015: Titan Airways (TIU), UK’s charter and airline sub-charter specialist, has taken delivery of the 1st of 2 additional A320s. It will be available in 12 business (C) and 138 standard (Y) seats from mid-February. It will be reconfigured to 168 seats (including 13 rows that convert from 6 abreast to 4 abreast) in April.
April 2015: Titan Airways (TIU) announced a new damp lease agreement with Jet2.com (JT2) to provide additional capacity during the peak summer period. (G-POWM), the latest Airbus A320 addition to (TIU)’s fleet, will be operating on behalf of (JT2) the leading leisure airline for a 5-month period.
June 2015: As the summer holiday season heats up, so does travel demand. Hence British low cost carrier (LCC) Jet2 (JT2) has sub-leased an A320-232 (2564, G-POWN) to Titan Airways (TIU).
September 2015: Titan Airways (TIU) intends to acquire an A319 in early spring next year as part of efforts to phase out its 737s.
The wet-lease (ACMI) provider's Business Development Manager, Alex Harrington said the deal is "90%" completed and adds an A319 as a "good ad-hoc charter" aircraft that will serve the (ACMI) market as well as the tour operations business opportunities.
Alistair Kiernan Commercial Director, said the "plan would be to eventually phase out our 737S and the A319 would be the replacement for that." The UK-based company has 3 737-300s.
Titan Airways (TIU) is also very seriously looking at an A321 and an A330, which Kiernan said could be used as all year round including winter for Caribbean, South America, and Middle Eastern operations.
January 2016: Titan Airways (TIU), the London Stansted based charter and airline sub-charter specialist, is bolstering its fleet with the introduction of a 1st Airbus A321. The A321-200 will join (TIU)’s 10-strong fleet in March and begin revenue service in April.
April 2016: Titan Airways (TIU), the London Stansted-based charter and airline sub-charter specialist, has taken delivery of its 1st Airbus A321. The Airbus A321-200, registered (G-POWN), joined the (TIU) fleet at the end of March and was quickly placed in a sub-charter role with Jet2.com (JT2).
June 2016: (STG) Aerospace was selected by British charter carrier Titan Airways (TIU) to install its "liTeMood" retrofit (LED) mood lighting systems on its Boeing 757 airplanes.
February 2017: 737-436F (25844, G-POWP), ex-(N844AU) leased from Automatic.
December 2017: Titan Airways (TIU) introduced a 2nd Boeing 737-400 to its fleet.
Click below for photos:
TIU-A320-232 - JT2 LSD-2015-07.jpg
1 737-3L9QC (CFM56-3B2) (1600-24219, /88 G-ZAPW), (TCI) LSD 2005-05. COMBI/130Y.
0 737-3YO SF (CFM56-3B1) (1811-24546, /89 G-ZAPV), (OXA) LSD 2004-05. OPS FOR ROYAL MAIL IN ROYAL MAIL COLORS. SOLD TO WEST ATLANTIC (AAG) 2013-12. FREIGHTER.
1 737-33AQC (CFM56-3) (25401, G-ZAPZ, 2007-10 - - SEE ATTACHED PHOTO - - "TIU-737-33A-2008-12"), ORIX LSD. COMBI/44C.
1 737-33AQC (CFM56-3) (25402, G-POWC), (AWW) LSD 2007-04. 130Y.
0 737-33A (CFM56-3C1) (2608-27285, /94, G-ZAPM - SEE PHOTO), EX-(COB) & (APC), (AWW) 4 YR LSD 1999-05, 130Y.
1 737-400 (CFM56-3) 2017-12.
1 737-436F (CFM56-3) (25844, G-POWP), EX-(N844AU), AUTOMATIC LEASED. FREIGHTER.
0 737-8BK (CFM56-7B26) (1488-33018, /04 OY-SEL), EX-(STR), (TCI) LSD, WITH WINGLETS. LATER CANCELLED LEASE. 189Y.
0 757-2YO (RB211-535E4) (472-26151, /92 G-ZAPU), EX-(MON), (GEF) LSD 2003-04. WET-LST (JMA) 2009-05. RTND. 204Y.
1 757-256 (29307, G-POWI; 29308, G-POWH), EX-(EC-HIQ & EC-HIR), LST (ABE) 2011-09. 29307 WFU. 200Y.
1 757-256 (29309, G-ZAPX), EX-(EC-HIS) 2006-05. ROYAL BANK OF SCOTLAND LSD. LST (EZY) 2010-06. WET-LST (BAB) 2012-05. RF (JT2) 2013-11. 195Y.
1 767-36NER (CF6-80C2B7F) (902-30847, /03 G-POWD - - SEE PHOTO - - "TIU-767-2009-12"), EX-(SKM), (GEF) 8 YR LSD 2010-02. LST (EZY) 2010-08. 265Y.
2 A320-200, 2015-02, 12C, 138Y (CONVERTS TO 168 SEATS INCLUDING 13 ROWS THAT WILL CONVERT FROM 6 ABREAST TO 4 ABREAST IN 2015-04).
1 A320-232 (2564, G-POWN - - SEE PHOTO), (JT2) LSD 2015-07. 180Y.
1 A320-233 (2791, G-POWI), EX-TACA INTERNATIONAL (TAC), (TCI) LSD 2013-04. RF (JT2) 2013-11. OPERATED FOR NOVAIR. 180Y.
1 A320-233 (4701, G-POWK), 180Y.
1 A321-211 (3830, G-POWN) LST Jet2.com (JT2) 2016-04. 212Y.
0 B AE 146-200QC (ALF502R-5) (E2114, /88 G-ZAPR), EX-(ANS) 2003-12. FREIGHTER.
0 B AE 146-200QT (ALF502R-5) (E2119, /89 G-ZAPN), EX-(QNZ) 1999-09, OPS FOR AUGSBURG AIRWAYS 2000-02, RTND 2002-12, 80Y/FREIGHTER.
0 B AE 146-200QC (ALF502R-5) (E2148, /88 G-ZAPK) WET-LST CITYJET 2001-01, FOR SALE OR LEASE. 80Y/FREIGHTER.
0 B AE 146-200QC (ALF502R-5) (E2176, /90 G-ZAPO), EX-AIR JET, BAMJ LSD 2000-07, WET-LST TYROLEAN 2000-08; LST (GFL) 2001-05, 94Y/FREIGHTER.
0 B AE AVRO RJ-100 (E3373, G-POWF), BF B AE 2011-01, OPS FOR UK MINISTRY OF DEFENCE. 60C, 50Y.
0 ATR 42-300 (PW120) (109, /88 G-BUPS; 113, /88 G-ZAPG), 109 RTND
(GEF) 2004-08. 113; RTND & 109; LST (AVT) 2005-01. 46Y/FREIGHTER.
0 SHORTS 360-300.
1 RAYTHEON KING AIR (PT6A-42) (BL-141, /93 G-ZAPT)), 8Y/FREIGHTER.
1 EMBRAER LEGACY 600 (01128, G-SUGA), OPS FOR AMSAIR EXEC DIVISION. EXEC.
GENE WILLSON, MANAGING DIRECTOR & FOUNDER.
JOHN MILROY, DIRECTOR FINANCE.
GRAHAM BAGULEY, DIRECTOR FLIGHT OPERATIONS (STNTACR)
JOHN HOSEY, DIRECTOR TECHNICAL (STNTACR),
ALISTAIR KIERNAN, DIRECTOR COMMERCIAL.
MIKE COOPER, CONTRACTS MANAGER.
ALEX HARRINGTON, BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER.